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Sleep deprivation: Impact on cognitive performance

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❶Van Dongen et al Response inhibition the Haylings sentence completion task , verb generation to nouns.

Introduction

Causes of Sleep Deprivation
Effects of Sleep Deprivation

You'll also want to include in which sleep stages dreaming occurs and the effects of dreaming, such as possibly relieving depression. If you're writing a sleep research paper for a psychology class, explore the meaning of dreams, using Sigmund Freud as a guide.

The database based on Word Net is a lexical database for the English Language. Sleep Disorders In your sleep research paper, discuss sleep disorders such as insomnia, the inability to fall asleep or remain asleep at night; sleep apnea, breathing disruptions during sleep; narcolepsy, uncontrollably falling sleep; and restless leg syndrome, a strange sensation in the legs and the need to move them constantly.

Sleep Deprivation Focus your research paper on sleep deprivation -- when a person doesn't get the amount of sleep he needs. Sleep Stages Sleep happens in four stages -- stages 1 through 3, then a rapid eye movement period known as REM -- which gives you ample material for a research paper. Dreaming No one knows for sure why humans dream while they sleep. Are You Getting Enough Sleep? Stages of Sleep Web MD: The Health Benefits of Dreams. Photo Credits sleep image by DXfoto.

Knowledge hoped to learn is how much sleep deprivation can an individual take before their bodies cannot handle it any more? Can sleep deprivation "build up" over time or do the short term effects remain after the body has recuperated? Out of all of the individuals in America, or the world, how many if these suffer from not getting enough sleep? Can students be fully expected to function at school and retain knowledge when they can barely function correctly?

Is there a certain age that sleep deprivation is more drawn to with its effects? The mastery of researching and writing will be greatly developed during this project. Having to so fully research a subject takes a lot of time, which creates a more informational atmosphere. All of the research gained will have to be sort through and read, which will greatly heighten the organizational management needed.

Also, because this is a formal topic paper, many forms of writing will be improved. This will cause more thinking and more use of writing skills. The project will better prepare people for later in life when anything but formal prohibited. This practice is something that will make a substantial difference in the growth of the writer. Findings on the topic Bibliography. However, many long term consequences include stroke, psychiatric issues anxiety, depression , ADD, and heart attack.

Breus states that continuous lack of sleep can have effects worse than smoking, high blood pressure, and heart disease. Also stated, is that over 70 million Americans are affected by some form of sleep deprivation today.

This proves that sleep deprivation is a medical issue that cannot be taken lightly. Ninety-two percent of high school students across the country, even world, may be affected with symptoms such as daytime drowsiness, headaches, depression, and poorer performance while at school. Duval also clarifies that ten percent of adolescents sleep only five hours, and twenty-three percent sleep six hours.

This can greatly impact all aspects of high school life and academics. This supports that sleep deprivation is a large problem not for just one school, but the schools of the country, even world. This not only impacts high schoolers, but most likely the statistics of college sleep rates are much worse also. There are the symptoms like grogginess, not being focused, and sluggish, but also there are more symptoms not possible to be seen with the naked eye.

Increases in stroke, weight gain, diabetes risks, and damaged bones are some of the effects. A person may quickly become overly-emotional, hungry, and clumsy than usual. Huffpost, This proves that the multiple effects of sleep deprivation are much more dangerous than people may think. L it stated that many people think they can train their bodies to not require as much sleep as needed, but this is not correct.

The brain needs sleep to regenerate itself. Also it states that a symptom of prolonged sleep deprivation is hallucinations, which can lead to temporary insanity. A persons immune system can be weakened and severely damaged from lack of sleep, which can intimately lead to death. White blood cells produced decreases, and so does growth hormones.

Studies showed that people who received less than four hours of sleep per night were three times more likely to die in the next six years. L This further proves that not getting enough sleep can severely impact your life , and damage some of the most important organs in your body which can lead to death. In the article, "Sleep Deprivation and teens: All of them have at least one hour less sleep than a person should, which completely alters their awareness.

A study in the journal Sleep found that teenagers who go to bed after midnight are twenty-four percent more likely to suffer from depression and twenty percent more likely to consider harming themselves than those who go to bed before ten at night. This source was selected because it is a lot older than all of the other.

Even in , sleep deprivation and the effects it had on students was an issue becoming larger and larger. However, the site also states that adolescents should have right at nine hours of sleep to function properly. Also, teenagers need a healthy amount of sleep because it helps them control their stress and emotions a lot better.

Most adults think they get enough sleep, but an adolescent is considered to be anyone from eleven to twenty-two. This article will help the impact of the research paper because it shows that more than ten years ago sleep deprivation was still an issue at large.

Most adolescents are "evening types" which means they stay up late on the week nights and even later on the weekends. This means they are consistently operating on not enough sleep during the week, and "catching up" on the weekends. This can alter the body's natural sleep cycle, making it even harder to sleep during the weeknights. This can lead to Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder DSPD which is when an individual's internal clock cycle of sleep dies not correspond with their desired sleep and wake times.

Dahnt This information can better the research being done because it yet again proves that sleep deprivation can have major effects, especially in young adults. In the article "The still of Sleep Loss in America", Herche says that over twenty percent of Americans get less than six hours if sleep. Many people and doctors alike blame this on the fact that there is always something to distract people from sleeping.

Things such as television, computers, and cell phones. Sleep disorders are severely under-diagnosed and under-treated. It has been suggested that hormone therapy, which is widely used for women during their menopausal transition to help alleviate climacteric symptoms, attenuates physiological stress response Lindheim et al However, after 25 h of total SD, no difference was observed between hormone therapy users and nonusers in visual episodic memory, visuomotor performance, verbal attention and shared attention Alhola et al In addition, during 40 h of SD, hormone therapy did not produce any advantage in reaction time or vigilance tasks Karakorpi et al The previous studies suggest that women cope with continuous wakefulness better than men.

According to evolution, the demands of child nurturing and rearing in women would support this hypothesis Corsi-Cabrera et al , but that certainly does not constitute a comprehensive explanation today.

Gender differences during SD could be due to either physiological or social factors. There are differences in the brain structure and functioning of men and women Ragland et al ; Cowell et al These can be seen in cognitive performance in normal, non-deprived conditions: Men and women also exhibit behavioral and lifestyle differences, which are mainly due to socialization and gender roles Eagly and Wood Current literature, however, provides only minimal evidence of differential effects during SD, and does not resolve the issue of sexual dimorphism in coping with SD.

Several studies provide evidence that during total SD, performance becomes more variable as assessed from the within-subject point of view eg, Smith et al ; Habeck et al ; Choo et al This is considered to reflect the wake-state instability caused by prolonged wakefulness. However, Doran et al were probably the first to also examine between-subjects variability, which they found to increase in PVT as wakefulness was extended to 88 hours. They suggested that some people are more vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss than others, which could probably explain the lack of significant results in some group comparisons.

These differences between subjects could have arguably been caused by differences in sleep history, but the sleep patterns for the preceding week were controlled with sleep diaries, actigraph, and calls to the time-stamped voice recorder. The interindividual variability has been further examined with a thorough protocol where a three night study baseline, 36 h SD and recovery was carried out three times Van Dongen et al Sleep history was manipulated by instructing subjects to stay in bed for either 6 or 12 h per night for one week before the study.

The 12 h procedure was repeated and the order of the conditions was counterbalanced. The authors concluded that interindividual differences were systematic and independent from sleep history.

The trait-like differential vulnerability to sleep loss has received support from an fMRI study attempting to reveal the neural basis for the interindividual differences Chuah et al The results indicated that the subjects less vulnerable to SD had lower prefrontal cortex activation at the rested wakefulness than the more vulnerable subjects.

During SD, activation increased temporarily in the prefrontal cortex and in some other areas only in the less vulnerable subjects. Since interindividual differences have also been found in other sleep-related variables, such as duration, timing, and quality of sleep, sleepiness, and circadian phase Van Dongen ; Van Dongen et al , it is plausible that the tolerance to SD may also vary. Nevertheless, more studies are needed for further support.

Although the adverse effects of SD on cognitive performance are quite well established, some studies have failed to detect any deterioration. Inadequate descriptions of study protocols or subject characteristics in some studies make it difficult to interpret the neutral results. However, it is likely that such results are due to methodological shortcomings, such as insensitive cognitive measures, failure to control the practice effect or other confounding factors, like individual sleep history or napping during the study.

Also, if the task is carried out only once during the SD period, the results may be influenced by circadian rhythm. Sleep deprivation studies are laborious and expensive to carry out, which may lead to compromises in the study design: Comparison of the results is also complicated because the length of sleep restriction varies and the studies are designed either within- or between-subjects. Sleeping in unfamiliar surroundings may impair sleep quality.

An adaptation night at the sleep laboratory is used to minimize this first night effect. Adding a portable recording, such as an actigraph, provides objective information about eg, bedtime and resting periods.

In some studies, the first night in the sleep laboratory has been the baseline eg, Drummond et al ; Forest and Godbout ; De Gennaro et al ; Drummond et al , whereas others have included one adaptation night eg, Casagrande et al ; Alhola et al Yet, it may be questionable to use data from the second night as the baseline because sleep quality can be better than normal due to the rebound from the first night. Accordingly, only data from the third night should be accepted, which has been the case in a few studies Thomas et al ; Van Dongen et al a.

This, however, makes the procedure very hard. Furthermore, study protocols can be improved by adding an ambulatory EEG recording to confirm the wakefulness of the subjects during the study. In sleep studies, a common pitfall is recruitment methods. Enrolment via advertisements or from sleep clinics favors the selection of subjects with sleeping problems or concerns about their cognitive performance.

Thus, strict exclusion criteria regarding physical or mental diseases or sleeping problems are essential. Further, sleeping habits should be controlled to make sure that the subjects are not initially sleep deprived. For this, use of a sleep diary for eg, 1—3 weeks before the experiment eg, De Gennaro et al ; Habeck et al ; Alhola et al or an actigraph is applicable Harrison and Horne ; Thomas et al The use of medication or stimulants, such as caffeine, alcohol or tobacco, is often prohibited before the experiment eg, Thomas et al ; Van Dongen et al a ; Habeck et al ; Alhola et al ; Choo et al In some studies, the subjects have been required to refrain from these substances only 24 h before the study Habeck et al ; Choo et al , which may increase withdrawal symptoms and dropping out of the study.

Thus a longer abstinence, eg, 1—2 weeks, is more appropriate Van Dongen et al a ; Alhola et al A variety of cognitive tests, from simple reaction time measures to complex decision-making tasks requiring creativity and reasoning, have been used to evaluate the effect of SD on cognition.

The greatest problem in repeated cognitive testing is the practice effect, which easily conceals any adverse effects of SD. Therefore, careful control over learning is essential. Cognitive processes are also intertwined in several ways, which makes it difficult to specify exactly which cognitive functions are utilized in certain performances. Because attention is involved in performing any cognitive task, a decrease in other cognitive domains during SD may be mediated through impaired attention.

In complex tasks, however, applying previous knowledge and use of strategies or creativity may be more essential. Some studies have concentrated on neural correlates of cognitive functioning during continuous wakefulness. Although these trials yield interesting information about brain functioning, the use of imaging techniques limits the selection of cognitive tests that could be carried out at the same time.

Dorrian et al have compiled a list of criteria for neurocognitive tests that would be suitable for investigating sleep deprivation effects. The criteria include psychometric quality, ie, reliability and validity, but the tests should also reflect a fundamental aspect of waking neurocognitive functions and it should be possible to interpret them in a meaningful way. The tasks should be repeatable, independent of aptitude, and they should be short with a high signal load.

These criteria are not met in some studies. Dorrian et al also argued that vigilance is the underlying factor through which the sleep deprivation effects are mediated in all other tasks.

However, although attention is needed to perform any task to some extent, the hypothesis that sleep deprivation can have an independent effect on other cognitive functions such as memory cannot be ruled out. Nevertheless, when measuring other cognitive functions, the characteristics of the task should be considered carefully and, eg, for repeated measures of memory, parallel test versions should be used.

The negative effect of both acute total and chronic partial SD on attention and working memory is supported by existing literature. Total SD impairs a range of other cognitive functions as well. In partial SD, a more thorough evaluation of higher cognitive functions is needed.

Furthermore, the effects of SD have not been thoroughly compared among some essential subpopulations. Although in general the cognitive performance of aging people is often poorer than that of younger individuals, during SD performance in older subjects seems to deteriorate less.

Based on the scarce evidence, it seems that in terms of cognitive performance, women may endure prolonged wakefulness better than men, whereas physiologically they recover slower. Tolerating SD can also depend on individual traits. However, mechanisms inducing differences between the young and aging and between men and women or different individuals are mostly unclear. Several reasons such as physiological mechanisms as well as social or environmental factors may be involved.

In conclusion, there is great variation in SD studies in terms of both subject selections and methods, and this makes it difficult to compare the different studies. In the future, methodological issues should be considered more thoroughly.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat v. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Today, prolonged wakefulness is a widespread phenomenon. Sleep deprivation, cognitive performance, sleep restriction, recovery, aging, gender differences. Sleep and sleep loss The need for sleep varies considerably between individuals Shneerson Mechanisms behind sleep loss effects Some hypotheses are proposed to explain why cognitive performance is vulnerable to prolonged wakefulness.

Acute total sleep deprivation Attention and working memory The two most widely studied cognitive domains in SD research are attention and working memory, which in fact are interrelated. Table 1 Cognitive tests in which deterioration of performance has been reported during acute total sleep deprivation. Open in a separate window. Long-term memory Long-term memory can be divided between declarative and non-declarative procedural memory.

Other cognitive functions Sleep deprivation impairs visuomotor performance, which is measured with tasks of digit symbol substitution, letter cancellation, trail-making or maze tracing Table 1. Motivation What role does motivation play in cognitive performance?

Self-evaluation of cognitive performance It has been suggested that the self-evaluation of cognitive performance is impaired by SD. Chronic partial sleep restriction Although chronic partial sleep restriction is common in everyday life and even more prevalent than total SD, surprisingly few studies have evaluated its effects on cognitive performance.

Cognitive recovering from sleep deprivation The recovery processes of cognitive performance after sleep loss are still obscure. Sleep deprivation in different populations Aging Sleep structure changes with aging.

Gender There are dissimilarities between genders in sleep structure measured with polysomnography for a review, see Manber and Armitage Interindividual differences Several studies provide evidence that during total SD, performance becomes more variable as assessed from the within-subject point of view eg, Smith et al ; Habeck et al ; Choo et al Methodological issues and common biases Although the adverse effects of SD on cognitive performance are quite well established, some studies have failed to detect any deterioration.

Conclusion The negative effect of both acute total and chronic partial SD on attention and working memory is supported by existing literature. The two-process model of sleep regulation revisited. Aviat Space Environ Med. Age-related changes in the time course of vigilant attention during 40 hours without sleep in men.

Validation of the S and C components of the three-process model of alertness regulation. Sleep deprivation, cognitive performance, and hormone therapy in postmenopausal women. Sex differences in slow-wave activity in response to sleep deprivation. Effect of the diurnal rhythm and 24 h of sleep deprivation on dichotic temporal order judgment. A new component of working memory?

Working memory and vigilance: Self-monitoring cognitive performance during sleep deprivation: Effects of modafinil, d-amphetamine and placebo. On the ability to self-monitor cognitive performance during sleep deprivation: Patterns of performance degradation and restoration during sleep restriction and subsequent recovery: A sleep dose-response study.

Short-term total sleep deprivations does not selectively impair higher cortical functioning. The effects of chronic sleep reduction on the performance of cognitive tasks sensitive to sleep deprivation. Gender and age differences in psychomotor vigilance performance under differential sleep pressure conditions. Total sleep deprivation effect on disengagement of spatial attention as assessed by saccadic eye movements. Sleep and performance in young adults and older normals and insomniacs during acute sleep loss and recovery.

Sleep stage physiology, mood, and vigilance responses to total sleep deprivation in healthy year-olds and year-olds. Assessing vigilance through a brief pencil and paper letter cancellation task LCT: Effects of one night of sleep deprivation and of the time of day.

The contribution of sleep to improvements in working memory scanning speed: A study of prolonged sleep restriction. Functional imaging of working memory after 24 hr of total sleep deprivation. Functional imaging of working memory following normal sleep and after 24 and 35 h of sleep deprivation: Correlations of fronto-parietal activation with performance.

Dissociation of cortical regions modulated by both working memory load and sleep deprivation and by sleep deprivation alone. The neural basis of interindividual variability in inhibitory efficiency after sleep deprivation. Effect of 38 h of total sleep deprivation on the waking EEG in women: Attentional effects of nor-adrenaline vary with arousal level: Selective activation of thalamic pulvinar in humans.

Effects of sex and age on regional prefrontal brain volume in two human cohorts. Visual search performance across 40 h of continuous wakefulness: Measures of speed and accuracy and relation with oculomotor performance. Leukocytosis and natural killer cell function parallel neurobehavioral fatigue induced by 64 hours of sleep deprivation. Cumulative sleepiness, mood disturbance, and psychomotor vigilance performance decrements during a week of sleep restricted to 4—5 hours per night.

Microcomputer analyses of performance on a portable, simple visual RT task during sustained operations. Behav Res Meth Instr Comp. Sustained attention performance during sleep deprivation: Evidence of state instability.

Neurocognitive assay sensitive to sleep loss. The effects of total sleep deprivation on cerebral responses to cognitive performance.

Altered brain response to verbal learning following sleep deprivation. Increasing task difficulty facilitates the cerebral compensatory response to total sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation-induced reduction in cortical functional response to serial subtraction. Increased cerebral response during a divided attention task following sleep deprivation. Effects of two nights sleep deprivation and two nights recovery sleep on response inhibition. Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation.

Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. Forest G, Godbout R. Effects of sleep deprivation on performance and EEG spectral analysis in young adults. Age and individual determinants of sleep loss effects. Total sleep deprivation and novelty processing: Implications for frontal lobe functioning. Circadian and wake-dependent modulation of fastest and slowest reaction times during the psychomotor vigilance task. An event-related fMRI study of the neurobehavioral impact of sleep deprivation on performance of a delayed-match-to-sample task.

Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. Loss of negative priming following sleep deprivation. Q J Exp Psychol A. Sleep loss and temporal memory. One night of sleep loss impairs innovative thinking and flexible decision making.

Organ Behav Hum Decis Process. Sleep loss impairs short and novel language tasks having a prefrontal focus. Prefrontal neuropsychological effects of sleep deprivation in young adults—a model for healthy aging?

One night of total sleep deprivation impairs implicit learning in the serial reaction task, but not the behavioral expression of knowledge. Total sleep deprivation increases the costs of shifting between simple cognitive tasks.

Acta Psychol Amst ; The effects of total sleep deprivation on the generation of random sequences of key-presses, numbers and nouns. Effects of sleep loss, time of day, and extended mental work on implicit and explicit learning of sequences. J Exp Psychol Appl. Human sleep, sleep loss and behaviour. High incentive effects on vigilance performance during 72 hours of total sleep deprivation. The brain basis for episodic memory: Sleep deprivation influences some but not all processes of supervisory attention.

Dichotic listening and sleep deprivation: Sleep deprivation and hormone therapy in postmenopausal women.

Hormone treatment gives no benefit against cognitive changes caused by acute sleep deprivation in postmenopausal women. Effects of sleep deprivation on lateral visual attention. Recovery from sleep deprivation. Impaired decision making following 49 h of sleep deprivation. The effect of total sleep deprivation on cognitive functions in normal adult male subjects. Sex, sexual orientation and sex hormones influence human cognitive function.

Sleep deprivation and some aspects of performance. Mortality associated with sleep duration and insomnia. Self-reported sleep duration in finnish general population. Elevated salivary cortisol levels as a result of sleep deprivation in a shift worker.

Occup Med Lond ; Cognitive deterioration and changes of P during total sleep deprivation. Prevalence of insomnia in a survey of 12, adults in france. The effect of one night without sleep on problem-solving and immediate recall. Auditory attention and multi-attribute decision-making during a 33 h sleep-deprivation period: Mean performance and between-subject dispersions.

Behavioral stress responses in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and the effects of estrogen. Am J Obstet Gynecol.

Sex, steroids, and sleep: The role of sleep in learning and memory. Decreased attentional responsivity during sleep deprivation: Orienting response latency, amplitude, and habituation. The effects of 72 hours of sleep loss on psychological variables. Speed of mental processing in the middle of the night.

Decreased cortical response to verbal working memory following sleep deprivation.


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The two most widely studied cognitive domains in SD research are attention and working memory, which in fact are interrelated. et al. Assessing vigilance through a brief pencil and paper letter cancellation task (LCT): Effects of one night of sleep deprivation and of the time of day. et al. The effect of total sleep deprivation on.

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Sleep deprivation may be undermining teen health Lack of sufficient sleep--a rampant problem among teens--appears to put adolescents at risk for cognitive and emotional difficulties, poor school performance, accidents and psychopathology, research suggests.4/4(1).

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The central research question of this paper is: What are the effects, according to recent literature, of sleep deprivation on someone’s health, performance and cognitive functions. Introduction Sleep is the natural recurring state of the absence of consciousness. Free sleep deprivation papers, essays, and research papers.

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The research being conducted is the evaluative impact of the effects of sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation is “ a form of psychological torture inflicted by depriving the victim of sleep”. Over 70 million citizens in America alone suffer in some form or another sleep deprivation. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Memory, Problem Solving, and Critical Thinking 2 ABSTRACT The main focus of this research was to obtain a deeper insight of the negative.