Yes but I still think the more health related the placement is the more I'll gain from it. I disagree because other people related skills are useful and you may learn those from taking part in a community project like building a garden. So would you prefer a mixture of health and non health related community placements? Qualitative research is becoming increasingly accepted and published in pharmacy and medical journals.
Some journals and publishers have guidelines for presenting qualitative research, for example, the British Medical Journal 9 and Biomedcentral. A good introduction provides a brief overview of the manuscript, including the research question and a statement justifying the research question and the reasons for using qualitative research methods.
This section also should provide background information, including relevant literature from pharmacy, medicine, and other health professions, as well as literature from the field of education that addresses similar issues. Any specific educational or research terminology used in the manuscript should be defined in the introduction. The methods section should clearly state and justify why the particular method, for example, face to face semistructured interviews, was chosen. The method should be outlined and illustrated with examples such as the interview questions, focusing exercises, observation criteria, etc.
The criteria for selecting the study participants should then be explained and justified. The way in which the participants were recruited and by whom also must be stated. The study sample and the research setting should be described. Sampling differs between qualitative and quantitative studies.
In quantitative survey studies, it is important to select probability samples so that statistics can be used to provide generalizations to the population from which the sample was drawn. Qualitative research necessitates having a small sample because of the detailed and intensive work required for the study.
So sample sizes are not calculated using mathematical rules and probability statistics are not applied. Instead qualitative researchers should describe their sample in terms of characteristics and relevance to the wider population.
Purposive sampling is common in qualitative research. Particular individuals are chosen with characteristics relevant to the study who are thought will be most informative. Purposive sampling also may be used to produce maximum variation within a sample.
Participants being chosen based for example, on year of study, gender, place of work, etc. Representative samples also may be used, for example, 20 students from each of 6 schools of pharmacy. Convenience samples involve the researcher choosing those who are either most accessible or most willing to take part. This may be fine for exploratory studies; however, this form of sampling may be biased and unrepresentative of the population in question.
Theoretical sampling uses insights gained from previous research to inform sample selection for a new study. The method for gaining informed consent from the participants should be described, as well as how anonymity and confidentiality of subjects were guaranteed. The method of recording, eg, audio or video recording, should be noted, along with procedures used for transcribing the data.
A description of how the data were analyzed also should be included. A good rule when considering how much information to include is that readers should have been given enough information to be able to carry out similar research themselves. One of the strengths of qualitative research is the recognition that data must always be understood in relation to the context of their production. If the analysis was repeated by more than 1 researcher to ensure reliability or trustworthiness, this should be stated and methods of resolving any disagreements clearly described.
Some researchers ask participants to check the data. If this was done, it should be fully discussed in the paper. An adequate account of how the findings were produced should be included A description of how the themes and concepts were derived from the data also should be included.
Was an inductive or deductive process used? The analysis should not be limited to just those issues that the researcher thinks are important, anticipated themes, but also consider issues that participants raised, ie, emergent themes. Qualitative researchers must be open regarding the data analysis and provide evidence of their thinking, for example, were alternative explanations for the data considered and dismissed, and if so, why were they dismissed?
Qualitative data conventionally are presented by using illustrative quotes. There should be an explanation of how the quotes were chosen and how they are labeled.
For example, have pseudonyms been given to each respondent or are the respondents identified using codes, and if so, how? It is important for the reader to be able to see that a range of participants have contributed to the data and that not all the quotes are drawn from 1 or 2 individuals.
There is a tendency for authors to overuse quotes and for papers to be dominated by a series of long quotes with little analysis or discussion. This should be avoided. Participants do not always state the truth and may say what they think the interviewer wishes to hear. A good qualitative researcher should not only examine what people say but also consider how they structured their responses and how they talked about the subject being discussed, for example, the person's emotions, tone, nonverbal communication, etc.
If the research was triangulated with other qualitative or quantitative data, this should be discussed. The findings should be presented in the context of any similar previous research and or theories.
A discussion of the existing literature and how this present research contributes to the area should be included. A consideration must also be made about how transferrable the research would be to other settings.
Any particular strengths and limitations of the research also should be discussed. It is common practice to include some discussion within the results section of qualitative research and follow with a concluding discussion. The author also should reflect on their own influence on the data, including a consideration of how the researcher s may have introduced bias to the results.
The researcher should critically examine their own influence on the design and development of the research, as well as on data collection and interpretation of the data, eg, were they an experienced teacher who researched teaching methods?
If so, they should discuss how this might have influenced their interpretation of the results. The conclusion should summarize the main findings from the study and emphasize what the study adds to knowledge in the area being studied.
Mays and Pope suggest the researcher ask the following 3 questions to determine whether the conclusions of a qualitative study are valid How well does this analysis explain why people behave in the way they do? How comprehensible would this explanation be to a thoughtful participant in the setting? How well does the explanation cohere with what we already know? This paper establishes criteria for judging the quality of qualitative research. It provides guidance for authors and reviewers to prepare and review qualitative research papers for the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education.
A checklist is provided in Appendix 1 to assist both authors and reviewers of qualitative data. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Am J Pharm Educ. Univeristy of Nottingham, Nottingham United Kingdom. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The purpose of this paper is to help authors to think about ways to present qualitative research papers in the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education.
Types of qualitative data include: Audio recordings and transcripts from in-depth or semi-structured interviews. Structured interview questionnaires containing substantial open comments including a substantial number of responses to open comment items. Strengths of Qualitative Research Issues can be examined in detail and in depth. The data based on human experience that is obtained is powerful and sometimes more compelling than quantitative data.
Data usually are collected from a few cases or individuals so findings cannot be generalized to a larger population. Findings can however be transferable to another setting. Limitations of Qualitative Research Research quality is heavily dependent on the individual skills of the researcher and more easily influenced by the researcher's personal biases and idiosyncrasies.
It is sometimes not as well understood and accepted as quantitative research within the scientific community. The researcher's presence during data gathering, which is often unavoidable in qualitative research, can affect the subjects' responses. Data From an Interview. Data From Observations The following example is some data taken from observation of pharmacist patient consultations using the Calgary Cambridge guide.
We will soon be starting a stop smoking clinic. Is the interview over now? Data From Focus Groups This excerpt from a study involving 11 focus groups illustrates how findings are presented using representative quotes from focus group participants. Checklist for authors and reviewers of qualitative research. However, qualitative research also have limitations. In my previous article I discussed about the limitations of quantitative research approach. In this paper I would be discussing about the limitations with respect to qualitative research.
The major drawback associated with qualitative cultural analysis is that this process is time-consuming. The second potential problem with qualitative research is that a particular problem could go unnoticed Bowen Also the interpretations of researchers are limited.
Personal experience and knowledge influences the observations and conclusions related to research problem. Data collection will be time consuming as it will be collected based on appointment dates fixed with individual respondents.
The entire process thus, might take several weeks or months. Besides, the varied perspectives recorded will be analyzed based on the limited understanding of the researcher. Also, since qualitative study delves into personal interaction for data collection, often discussion tends to deviate from the main issue to be studied.
As qualitative research is mostly open-ended, the participants have more control over the content of the data collected. So the researcher is not able to verify the results objectively against the scenarios stated by the respondents. Similarly qualitative research requires well experienced researchers to obtain the targeted data from the group of respondents.
Also different conclusions are derrived based on the same information depending on the personal characteristics of the researcher Maxwell Researchers find it difficult to investigate causality between different research phenomena.
Qualitative research is little complex to explain the difference in the quality and quantity of information obtained from different respondents and arriving at non-consistent conclusions Barbour For example , to determine if human development is dependent on the level of education, interview or focus group data is collected from the residents of Uttar Pradesh. It is difficult to determine the effect, owing to varied perspective which is difficult to gauge.
Qualitative study requires thoughtful planning to ensure the obtained results accurate. There is no way to analyze the qualitative data mathematically. This type of research is based more on the opinion and judgment rather than the results. All the qualitative studies are unique in itself so it is difficult to replicate.
Francis, The appropriate research designs for case study base qualitative research are explanatory, descriptive and exploratory.
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Limitations and weakness of qualitative research methods By Priya Chetty on September 11, In order to gain in-depth knowledge of underlying reasons and motivations, qualitative research is .
Qualitative research is a broad term that refers to research methods most commonly used in fields such as sociology, anthropology, ethnography and other human and social sciences. Though qualitative studies do produce compelling research, the qualitative approach is not without its limitations.
There are also professional limitations to qualitative research. Within many disciplines, qualitative studies do not receive the academic support or opportunities for . elmercuriodigital.mlative research involves fieldwork. the researcher physically goes to the people, setting, site, or institution to observe or record behavior in its natural setting. elmercuriodigital.mlative research is descriptive in that the researcher is interested in process, meaning, and understanding gained through words or pictures.
Keywords: limitations of quantitative research Discuss The Strengths And Limitations Of Quantitative And Qualitative Data In Supporting Knowledge Claims In The Human Sciences And At Least One Other Area Of Knowledge. Oct 11, · The purpose of this paper is to help authors to think about ways to present qualitative research papers in the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. It also discusses methods for reviewers to assess the rigour, quality, and usefulness of qualitative research.