Especially if you have a computer word-processor, which makes the task easy, you should try to use footnotes. What should I cite? The easiest and most important rule to remember is: In avoiding plagiarism, it is always wiser to choose more rather than less information. In a research paper for history, you generally need not cite common knowledge.
Common knowledge may be considered any information readily available in any encyclopedia. Common knowledge may be comprised of basic historical facts, such as dates of events and place names. For example, everyone knows that the Battle of Gettysburg occurred from July , , in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
No need to include the source of this basic information. Arcane or debated facts of the past, however, need to be cited. These are not readily accessible facts, agreed upon by all. No one knows when exactly Jesus Christ lived, so if you include set dates for his birth and death, you need to cite the author who claims to know these things.
As this suggests, you must cite all information that constitutes another author's interpretations or arguments. Remember, the point of citation is to acknowledge the sources of ideas that are not your own, and to provide a path back through your research so other scholars can check your work.
If you do not include citations, your reader cannot know where your ideas came from, and cannot check controversial statements you might make. Matters of historical interpretation are particularly important to cite. Let's consider the Gettysburg example again. The date and place of the battle are common knowledge no one would think to dispute.
But what about the argument that the Confederacy lost the battle primarily because General Longstreet failed to flank the Union forces on the left? Or that Confederate cavalry general J.
Stuart was the primary cause of defeat because he failed to stay close to the Confederate army? All such claims are debatable points of interpretation. The paper is created by boiling and pounding the inner bark of trees, until the material becomes suitable for art and writing.
These materials made from pounded reeds and bark are technically not true paper , which is made from pulp, rags, and fibers of plants and cellulose. European papermaking spread to the Americas first in Mexico by and then in Philadelphia by The use of human and animal powered mills was known to Chinese and Muslim papermakers.
However, evidence for water-powered paper mills is elusive among both prior to the 11th century. Donald Hill has identified a possible reference to a water-powered paper mill in Samarkand , in the 11th-century work of the Persian scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni , but concludes that the passage is "too brief to enable us to say with certainty" that it refers to a water-powered paper mill.
Clear evidence of a water-powered paper mill dates to in the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon. The first paper mill north of the Alps was established in Nuremberg by Ulman Stromer in ; it is later depicted in the lavishly illustrated Nuremberg Chronicle. Before the industrialisation of the paper production the most common fibre source was recycled fibres from used textiles, called rags.
The rags were from hemp , linen and cotton. It was not until the introduction of wood pulp in that paper production was not dependent on recycled materials from ragpickers. Although cheaper than vellum, paper remained expensive, at least in book-sized quantities, through the centuries, until the advent of steam-driven paper making machines in the 19th century, which could make paper with fibres from wood pulp.
Although older machines predated it, the Fourdrinier papermaking machine became the basis for most modern papermaking. Nicholas Louis Robert of Essonnes , France , was granted a patent for a continuous paper making machine in At the time he was working for Leger Didot with whom he quarrelled over the ownership of the invention.
Didot sent his brother-in-law, John Gamble, to meet Sealy and Henry Fourdrinier , stationers of London , who agreed to finance the project. Gamble was granted British patent on 20 October With the help particularly of Bryan Donkin , a skilled and ingenious mechanic, an improved version of the Robert original was installed at Frogmore Paper Mill , Hertfordshire , in , followed by another in A third machine was installed at the Fourdriniers' own mill at Two Waters. The Fourdriniers also bought a mill at St Neots intending to install two machines there and the process and machines continued to develop.
However, experiments with wood showed no real results in the late 18th century and at the start of the 19th century. By , Matthias Koops in London, England further investigated the idea of using wood to make paper, and in he wrote and published a book titled Historical account of the substances which have been used to describe events, and to convey ideas, from the earliest date, to the invention of paper. No pages were fabricated using the pulping method from either rags or wood.
He received financial support from the royal family to make his printing machines and acquire the materials and infrastructure needed to start his printing business. But his enterprise was short lived. Only a few years following his first and only printed book the one he wrote and printed , he went bankrupt.
The book was very well done strong and had a fine appearance , but it was very costly. Then in the s and s, two men on two different continents took up the challenge, but from a totally new perspective. Both Friedrich Gottlob Keller and Charles Fenerty began experiments with wood but using the same technique used in paper making; instead of pulping rags, they thought about pulping wood. And at about the same time, by mid, they announced their findings.
They invented a machine which extracted the fibres from wood exactly as with rags and made paper from it. Charles Fenerty also bleached the pulp so that the paper was white. This started a new era for paper making. By the end of the 19th-century almost all printers in the western world were using wood in lieu of rags to make paper.
Together with the invention of the practical fountain pen and the mass-produced pencil of the same period, and in conjunction with the advent of the steam driven rotary printing press , wood based paper caused a major transformation of the 19th century economy and society in industrialized countries. With the introduction of cheaper paper, schoolbooks, fiction, non-fiction, and newspapers became gradually available by Cheap wood based paper also meant that keeping personal diaries or writing letters became possible and so, by , the clerk , or writer, ceased to be a high-status job.
The original wood-based paper was acidic due to the use of alum and more prone to disintegrate over time, through processes known as slow fires. Documents written on more expensive rag paper were more stable. Mass-market paperback books still use these cheaper mechanical papers see below , but book publishers can now use acid-free paper for hardback and trade paperback books. Determining the provenance of paper is a complex process that can be done in a variety of ways. The easiest way is using a known sheet of paper as an exemplar.
Using known sheets can produce an exact identification. Next, comparing watermarks with those contained in catalogs or trade listings can yield useful results. Inspecting the surface can also determine age and location by looking for distinct marks from the production process. Chemical and fiber analysis can be used to establish date of creation and perhaps location. It has also become universal to talk of paper "mills" even of such mills at Fez!
All our evidence points to non-hydraulic hand production, however, at springs away from rivers which it could pollute. European papermaking differed from its precursors in the mechanization of the process and in the application of water power.
Gimpel goes on to say: Paper had traveled nearly halfway around the world, but no culture or civilization on its route had tried to mechanize its manufacture. Indeed, Muslim authors in general call any "paper manufactory" a wiraqah — not a "mill" tahun. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The Invention of Printing. A History of Graphic Design. Createspace Independent Pub, , p. A Book about Books. It is better, though, to use numerous sources. Benjamin, A Student's Guide to History , 2nd ed. Martin's Press, , On most assignments in level courses, you may not use quotations. And this does not mean you can take someone else's exact words and use them without "quotation marks" or formatting as single spaced and indented if longer than three lines, even if you cite the passage.
Too often, students use another author's words rather than thinking through the issue themselves. It is better to use your own words and show your own mastery of the material. That means rewriting and paraphrasing your sources. Check the syllabus whether you may use quotes from your sources or not. If you may use quotes, each one must be properly cited.
Any use of another person's words must be properly identified. Not to do so is plagiarism. If you use just a few words you put quotation marks "word" around the borrowed text. If the text is longer than 3 lines, use a block of single-spaced and indented text.
If you edit the quotes somewhat, use the following: Turabian or Chicago Manual of Style format requires specific punctuation and order for your information. It is often the format used by historians who wrote the books of information available for research. Information should be single spaced within the citation.
Both of these styles place bibliographic citations at the bottom of the page as footnotes, or at the end of a paper as endnotes. Both citation styles are equally acceptable, and each has a series of rules for the citation of different kinds of sources, such as books, journal articles, chapters in collected works, etc.
Format and Citations for History Papers This guide is intended as a quick reference to writing papers according to the Chicago Manual of Style, the authority for .
The citation style to use is determined by your professor, or if you are submitting a manuscript, by the journal or publisher. However, each discipline tends to use one or two styles. Anthropology - use Chicago. CITING SOURCES. A citation is the part of your paper that tells your reader where your source information came from. This is one of the most important elements to your paper. In order to evaluate your argument, your reader must be able to consult the same sources you used.
The following suggestions for citations of Internet sources in history and the humanities are derived from the essential principles of academic citation in Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 5th ed. (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, ).I have also drawn upon suggestions from some of the works listed in the bibliography of additional materials. SAMPLE CHICAGO STYLE PAPER John Doe History Dr. Johnson July 11, Doe 1 The Chicago Style of writing is used for academic writing in the field of Humanities, especially history. Specific guidelines for formatting a paper in Chicago Style are outlined in manuals such as the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.