In addition the relative value of manufactured goods in the provincial economy has risen dramatically since that time. Rice is the leading crop. Since less than one-fifth of the land is under cultivation, agriculture is of necessity extremely intensive; but the limited extent of sown land available is partly offset by repeated use of it. Progress in irrigation and flood control has made water control possible for almost all of the cultivated area, producing good rice yields.
Farming and irrigation have become increasingly mechanized, with more reliance placed on the use of chemical fertilizers. Two crops of rice a year can be grown on most cultivated land, and in the Pearl River Delta three crops are not unusual. Thus, although average yields per harvest are below the national average, annual yields exceed the average. Although food-grain crops occupy almost all of the total cultivated area, the industrial and fruit crops grown on the remaining land are of national importance.
In tropical Guangdong a number of industrial crops are successfully raised, including rubber, sisal, palm oil, hemp, coffee, and black pepper. Other traditional agricultural products include sweet potatoes, peanuts groundnuts , and tea.
No less than types of fruits are grown, among the more representative of which are citrus, litchi, pineapples, and bananas. Fish production accounts for as much as one-third of the income of some localities.
More than species of saltwater fish, including yellow croaker, white herring, mackerel, golden thread, and pomfret, are caught from numerous fishing ports. Fish breeding in ponds or along riverbanks and seacoasts has flourished. In the first half of the 20th century, Guangdong experienced modern growth as Guangzhou developed into an industrial, commercial, and transportation centre.
But because of the paucity of its iron deposits, Guangdong received only scant attention during the First Five-Year Plan — The discovery of other mineral deposits, however, prompted the development of some heavier industries, including metal and petrochemical processing, the manufacture of machinery, and shipbuilding and ship repairing.
A large proportion of these industries is still concentrated in Guangzhou. Coal reserves and manganese deposits are located mainly in the north and northeast near Shaoguan and Meizhou , although some lower-grade coal is found on the Leizhou Peninsula.
Oil shale deposits have been discovered near Maoming , just north of the peninsula. Tungsten, which is associated with bismuth, molybdenum, and tin deposits, is mined near the Jiangxi border, where uranium is also found. The province has reserves of germanium and tellurium and produces some lead and antimony. Light industry has always been of significance in the province. Apart from handicrafts, light industry—especially food processing and the manufacture of textiles—accounts for a large section of industrial production.
However, since the turn of the 21st century, the proportion of the output value for light industry in the provincial economy has decreased dramatically compared with other quickly developing industrial sectors, notably electronics and information technology. Other major manufactures include automobiles and motorcycles, electric machinery, petrochemicals, building materials, paper, and pharmaceuticals.
A large proportion of these industries are export-oriented, notably those factories established in the three special economic zones. Economically and culturally, the different regions of Guangdong are linked by the waterways of the Pearl River system. In addition, a number of coastal and international shipping routes are variously linked to more than large and small ports.
The waterways are maintained by continually dredging, widening, and clearing the channels. Connections with other provinces depend principally on land transportation. Guangdong has developed one of the best highway networks in China, running primarily along river valleys. Interprovincial links, both for highways and railroads, usually run north-south. The vital Beijing-Guangzhou railroad was double-tracked in the early s. Another major north-south line, from Beijing to Kowloon Jiulong in Hong Kong, was opened in the mids.
The low priority placed on east-west transport is indicated by the absence of a railroad running parallel to the Xi River and by the fact that the Guangzhou-Zhanjiang line was only opened in However, this line, connected with a line completed that runs northwest to Litang in Guangxi, links the province by rail with its western neighbouring province. A new railroad connecting Guangzhou with Shantou via Meizhou north of Shantou opened in the mids and was extended eastward into Fujian province in Air services connect the province to numerous international cities.
The administrative system in Guangdong has undergone many changes since the establishment of communist rule in Autonomous administrative units were created in the early s for areas with large ethnic minority populations. The status of Guangzhou was changed in from a centrally administered municipality tebieshi to a prefecture-level municipality dijishi under the jurisdiction of the provincial government.
Guangdong is subdivided into 20 other prefecture-level municipalities in addition to Guangzhou. Guangdong is further divided into districts under the municipalities shixiaqu , counties xian , autonomous counties zizhixian , and country-level municipalities xianjishi. Rural administration was reorganized in when communization replaced the administrative villages, market towns, and municipal districts.
In —81 the government implemented a policy of greater decentralized economic management, and the communes lost their administrative role. In general, hospitals, clinics, and many health stations, including maternity centres, are available at the local level. Better-equipped and better-staffed hospitals are maintained at the county and provincial levels.
Medical education has been greatly expanded and includes a university devoted to Chinese medicine acupuncture and herbal medicine. Many short-term medical-training classes are organized for health workers assigned to rural areas. The development of medical services, coupled with the general improvement in sanitation and health education, has succeeded in eliminating many previously common diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, and filariasis.
Education, health, and other social conditions in Guangdong have generally been improved since There are now many more kindergartens and nurseries for preschool education , secondary schools, and postsecondary schools and universities. Repeated campaigns have succeeded in reducing illiteracy throughout the province. Special attention has been given to the education of the ethnic minorities. New schools, including a national minority college, have been established in minority communities. Dozens of higher learning institutions are located in different cities in the province, notably in Guangzhou, including Sun Yat-sen University founded , South China University of Technology , Jinan University , and Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine Guangdong has long been noted for the distinctive cultural traits of its people, as evidenced by the variety of dialects spoken.
Guangdong is famous for its two types of local opera: Guangdong also has some characteristic puppet plays. The hand puppets of Guangzhou are distinguished by their size—they are between 3 to 4 feet about 1 metre high—and by the beautiful carving of their wooden heads. Many places in Guangdong have distinctive forms of folk art; examples are the woodcuts of Chaozhou and the stone engravings of Shunde.
Cantonese food is widely recognized as among the most distinctive in China and is the best-known Chinese cuisine worldwide. It is characterized by the use of a variety of fresh ingredients, minimal seasoning, and quick cooking typically, by stir-frying. Living in a coastal province, the people are particularly fond of seafood. Chinese who have returned from Southeast Asia have popularized the chewing of betel nut wrapped in cockscomb Celosia cristata leaves.
Special congees rice or millet gruels and soups with different ingredients are also often served in Cantonese cuisine. Guangdong is a province where lineage —an important social institution in China—has been emphasized.
The importance of ancestry is often reflected in the settlement pattern of lineage groups. The inhabitants of many villages belong exclusively to one or two lineages. In such villages, community and lineage organizations are virtually identical. Conflicts between lineages were once common and often took the form of community strife, with bitter vendettas sometimes lasting for long periods of time.
With the founding of the new regime in , systematic efforts were made to change these cultural patterns in accordance with governmental ideology and policy, although in the early s limited religious practice was again allowed. On the other hand, many aspects of traditional culture , especially the folk arts and the theatre, were revived and extolled. Guangdong has a wealth of tourist attractions.
These include red sandalwood furniture, rattan chairs, Guangdong embroidery characterized by the use of handmade silk , drawnwork a specialized style of needlework from Chaozhou and Shantou, ivory carvings from Guangzhou, pottery from Shiwan, fireworks from Dongguan, and ink slabs from Zhaoqing—all of which are known throughout the country.
Physically separated from the early centres of Chinese civilization in North China, Guangdong was originally occupied by non-Han ethnic groups. It was first incorporated into the Chinese empire in bce , when Shihuangdi , first emperor of the Qin dynasty , conquered the area along the Xi and Bei river valleys down to the Pearl River Delta.
In bce Chinese domination was extended to the whole of what is now Guangdong, including Hainan, during the reign —87 bce of the Wudi emperor of the Han dynasty bce — ce.
The conquest, however, was not followed by successful colonization, and Guangdong remained part of the empire only politically. The military and agricultural colonization of Guangdong gradually took place during the five centuries of the Sui , Tang , and Bei Northern Song dynasties i.
This colonization, combined with increasing overseas trade channeled through Guangzhou Canton , led to an increase of migration into Guangdong and to the emergence of Guangzhou as a metropolis with a population of hundreds of thousands.
At the end of the period, however, Guangdong was still occupied predominantly by its original ethnic population. The region was viewed as a semicivilized frontier, and disgraced officials often were exiled there. The southward thrust of the Han was greatly intensified from , when the Juchen of the Jin dynasty captured the Bei Song capital at what is now Kaifeng , forcing the Song to migrate south. Another major population movement followed a century and a half later as China fell to the Mongols.
These migrations marked the beginning of effective Han occupation and the rapid cultural development of Guangdong. Especially after the 16th century the growth of population was so fast that by the late 17th century the Guangdong region had become a source of emigration.
Migrants from Guangdong moved first to Guangxi, Sichuan , and Taiwan and then in the midth century began to pour into Southeast Asia and North America , and some were also taken as indentured labourers to British, French, and Dutch colonies. Since the midth century, Guangdong has produced a number of prominent political and military, as well as intellectual , leaders.
Many of the leaders of political movements during this period—such as Hong Xiuquan , leader of the Taiping Rebellion —64 ; Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao of the Reform Movement ; and Sun Yat-sen Sun Zhongshan , who led the republican Chinese Revolution of —12—had associations with Guangdong.
In the s Chiang Kai-shek Jiang Jieshi made Guangzhou the base from which his program to reunify China under Nationalist rule was launched. Foreign privileges in the city were reduced, and modernization of the economy was undertaken.
The almost simultaneous rise of the communist movement and the advent of Japanese aggression in the s, however, thwarted the plans of Chiang and the Nationalists. From to the Japanese occupied southern Guangdong province.
After World War II the conflict between the communists and the Nationalists erupted into full-scale civil war and continued until the communist victory in late We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.
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The southernmost province of mainland China is Guangdong (or Kwangtung). South China’s trade has long been channeled mainly through Guangdong, and from the late 20th century its manufacturing industries and cities grew very rapidly. Guangdong is bordered by the Zhuang Autonomous Region of Guangxi on the west, the provinces of Hunan and Jiangxi on the north, the province of Fujian on the. religion homework help online Chat With Top Rated Homework Helpers 24/7. Step By Step GuidanceOn-1 K Reading, Math, Science, Writing, Qualified teachers Allenphd thesis in radiation physics Guangdong Religion Homework Help i need help with my personal statement request letter format dealershipThe story online gambling essay of theodora religion homework help.