Because hypotonicity and delays in motor development are characteristic of Down syndrome, the relative instability in canonical babbling may be a consequence of deficits in the motor domain. The second aspect is the transition to speech.
In a longitudinal study of typically developing infants, Robb, Bauer, and Tyler reported that when their subjects had a productive vocabulary of about 10 different words, the proportion of words and babble in their spontaneous productions was roughly equal. When the productive vocabulary reached 50 words, at around 18 months of age, the ratio of words to babble was about three to one. During the transition to speech, the phonetic characteristics of babble and speech are highly similar Locke, ; Stoel-Gammon, Specifically, the types of consonants that occur most frequently in late babbling, namely, stops, nasals and glides, also predominate in early word productions, while the consonants that are infrequent in babble, liquids, fricatives, and affricates, are precisely those that appear later in the acquisition of meaningful speech Stoel-Gammon, Moreover, the consonant-vowel syllable structure which is characteristic of the canonical babbling period is also the most frequent syllabic type in early word productions.
Thus, among the typically developing population, babbling and early speech share the same basic phonetic properties in terms of sound types and syllable shapes. In general, increased use of complex babble in the prelinguistic period is linked to better performance on the speech and language measures after the onset of speech and in the years that follow.
These findings suggest that babbling serves as a foundation for the acquisition of speech and language; Most children with Down syndrome exhibit a substantial delay in the appearance of first words, in spite of their normal babbling patterns. Taken together, the research by Buckley and B. Smith indicates that the onset of meaningful speech is significantly delayed in the infants with Down syndrome and that after the appearance of words, growth of productive vocabulary is exceedingly slow.
Other investigations of lexical acquisition in children with Down syndrome have shown that even when the Down syndrome group is matched to a typically developing control group on mental rather than chronological age, lexical acquisition in children with Down syndrome is delayed Chapman, Smith, ; Stoel-Gammon, , As might be expected, however, phonological acquisition in children with Down syndrome proceeds more slowly than in their cognitively typical peers.
Smith and Stoel-Gammon calculated the rate of suppression of four phonological processes in their longitudinal study. Errors documented for young children with Down syndrome tend to persist through adolescence and even adulthood. Dodd ; suggested that these errors are related toa general deficit in their motor abilities. In terms of intervention for single-word productions, most programs focus on increasing the phonetic repertoire and reducing the number of errors, using therapy techniques similar to those for children with phonological delay or disorder.
Long-standing difficulties with intelligibility can presumably be attributed to phonological patterns associated with Down syndrome. The ultimate goal of such programs is to allow individuals with learning disabilities to live independently and work in the community.
In the domain of speech and language, efforts are often directed toward increasing the functional communication skills necessary for social interactions and vocational training with little emphasis on phonology skills per se. Essay UK - http: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
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If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:. Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. It happens in the early development stages of a fetus as a random occurrence in cell division, resulting in some cells having the normal duo of chromosome 21 copies, while some cells have three copies.
In the third case, Translocation Down Syndrome, the condition may be inherited. The carriers of this balanced translocation do not display signs of Down Syndrome, but they have a higher risk of giving birth to children with the chromosomal condition.
The syndrome's severity ranges from the mild to moderate ranges; however, the one consistently present trait in children with Down Syndrome is mental retardation, and the syndrome is responsible for one percent of all cognitive mental retardation Fogle Despite these impairments many individuals are characterized as being generally pleasant, affectionate and happy people.
In respect to their receptive language, children diagnosed with Down Syndrome often have language comprehension that is about the same as their mental age. Note, that this is often different from their chronological age. As a general rule, their aptitude for language comprehension is greater than their aptitude for expressive language, specifically speech.
It is important to note that these children frequently exhibit comparatively good development of language in their infancy and toddler stages, this is particularly true when the children are enrolled in early-intervention After this period of time, however, in the first school years the rate of language development noticeably slows down.
In terms of general diagnostic testing, it is recommended by The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Down Syndrome Medical Interest Group that babies diagnosed with Down Syndrome should have audiologic testing directly after the are born and then again every six months until the child is three, or until they can sit for an audiogram with ear specific testing.
After this point, there should be an annual hearing test, and even if there is only a mild hearing loss, hearing aids should be considered. The tests should change with their development. Newborns who have been diagnosed with the syndrome receive the mandatory hearing screening and receive objective tests like otoacoustic emissions or auditory brainstem response like other babies. Those who fail the screening should be tested with visual reinforcement audiometry at the devlopmental age not chronological age of ten months and conditional play audiometry when they reach the developmental age of two years.
Adults should have a hearing assessment conducted every five years, ideally with pure tone audiometry testing and an additional word test Snashall, Susan. Due to differing craniofacial and orofacial anatomy, tymapnometry will always be a useful test for middle ear fluid.
Likewise, an otoscopic exam should be conducted annually to check the accumulation of wax. The buildup of cerumen is so common that pathologies of the middle ear may go unnoticed unless searched for by otoscope. A study by Hassman E. The study involved forty seven children and fourteen adults with Down Syndrome.
Al were the examinations included in the study. The resulting data were compared to control groups of the appropriate age. It was also found that distortion product otoacoustic emissions had lower amplitudes in the children diagnosed with Down Syndrome than those found in the control groups. The ability to hear is essential to a child's ability to develop language and speech and because many children with Down Syndrome have hearing problems early in their lives, hearing loss is a great concern for these individuals.
Consequently, children with Down Syndrome who are diagnosed with a hearing impairment are in danger of having learning impairments subsequent to their hearing loss. Therefore the diagnosis and treatment of otological disorders in children is an important topic for the education of speech and language students as well as clinical research. Though a small study, it supports the general consensus that children with Down Syndrome have a high incidence of persistent conductive hearing loss.
This must be aggressively diagnosed and managed because this hearing loss may turn out to be one of the major factors that may cause the spoken communication abilities of Down syndrome children to rate significantly lower than their actual cognitive abilities. The conductive loss often seen in individuals with Down Syndrome can result from several otologic pathologies such as stenotic ear canals, otitis media, glue ear, cerumen impaction, and cholesteatoma Satwant S.
Stenotic ear canals refer to an external ear canal, the canal that connects the external ear to the middle ear, that has become unusually narrow. If the ear canal is narrow enough it may cause a hearing loss.
The stenotic ear canals can present several practical problems, the canals may become easily clogged, and it may be difficult to correctly diagnose middle ear disease in stenotic ear canals.
To be sure of appropriate examination and diagnosis, the canals may require an otolaryngologist to clean the canals before examinations, which should occur every three months to prevent ear infections that may otherwise go undiagnosed and untreated. The diagnosis for this is aided by a simple macroscopic examination of the canal or a standard otoscopic examination.
In terms of treatment, a surgeon may remove extra tissue to widen the canal. Another concern is the actual craniofacial and orofacial anatomy of Down syndrome children which may also lead to chronic ear problems.
Certain anatomical characteristics may impede the aeration of the middle ear which can lead to otitis media. The outer ear canal normally cleans itself, moving cerumen away from the tympanic membrane towards the external auditory meatus, but in children with Down syndrome, the canal is abnormally narrow making these processes less efficient and leading to a build up of ear wax.
This accumulation of cerumen is made worse by the fact that it may be more copious and harder than normal, and the impacted ear wax may then block the external auditory meatus. There may also be problems with the Eustachian tube which connects the middle ear space to the nasopharynx. Eustachian tube dysfunction may result in otitis media with effusion glue ear , which can result in a conductive hearing loss.
Otitis media with effusion does not resolve on it's own in Down syndrome individuals as it does in others due to the shape of the Eustachian tube. In general, the tube may be narrower and more horizontal than normal and the nasopharynx may be small Snashall, Susan. Also, children with Down syndrome may have hypotonia, also known as low muscle tone, which may cause difficulties in opening and closing the tube. Another concern about Eustachian tube dysfunction is that it will last longer in children with Down syndrome that other children, so an important part of prevention is frequent examinations and consistent monitoring.
Otitis Media is a basic term for the infection or inflammation of the spaces in the middle ear Peterson, Bell Though otitis media is a very common childhood illness, children with Down syndrome are particularly susceptible to ear infection including serous otitis media thin, watery fluid is present with infection.
There are several causes for this; for one, individuals often produce large amounts of mucous. When this is coupled with immunodeficiency in the individual, infection may easily occur.
Also due to immunodeficiency, children with Down syndrome have a higher incidence of upper respiratory infections which can predispose chronic lasting at least six weeks otitis media. Upper respiratory infections or allergies may result in a swollen Eustachian tube which may entrap bacteria and may result in otitis media. Symptoms of otitis media include ear otalgia, which refers to ear pain, fever, and otorrhea, which refers to discharge of the ear. To diagnose otitis media, an otoscopic examination will often be effective.
The doctor will be looking to see a tympanic membrane that is normal in color, pink to gray, and it should be slightly translucent.
An inflammed, red or engorged eardrum will point towards infection, as well as a tympanic membrane that bulges outward, retracts inward, or shows signs of perforation. Other options are tympanometry to test the middle ear function and test for fluid. If a child experiences chronic Eustachian tube dysfunction, treatment may include pressure equalization tubes which can eliminate the chronic episodes.
These tubes are placed in the eardrum and allow air to enter the middle ear. The downside of the tubes is that they may need to be replaced. For chronic ear infections, anti-biotic medication may also be considered. Glue ear is also called secretory otitis media or otitis media with effusion. Like regular otitis media, it has a high incidence in Down syndrome children. A mucous like fluid secretes and gathers in the middle ear, which should only be filled with air, and covers the ossicles, preventing them from moving normally, which results in reduced hearing levels.
While glue ear is common, Down syndrome provides extra complications to this condition. For one, the glue-like substance is stickier which makes it more difficult to wash and prone to infection. Again, anatomy may affect the condition because if the Eustachian tubes are narrower and more horizontal, it will be difficult for the Eustachian tube to let the middle ear drain.
Treatment of glue ear is essential because, if left untreated, glue ear may result in irreversible damage to the middle ear, this may be due to the lack of motility of the ossicles.
Fortunately, there are three main approaches to treating glue ear: The procedure to inset pressure equalization tubes is called a myringotomy operation and refers to the small cut made in the tympanic membrane which may also be done as a separate procedure. It is generally performed with the patient under a general anesthetic. If the fluid is very viscous a cut will be made to let air into the middle ear space while the other cut drains the fluid.
Pressure equalization tubes go through the tympanic membrane, relieving the often painful pressure of the fluid against the eardrum, and allow for the fluid in the middle ear to drain into the external auditory canal.
The tube is held in place by the tension in the tympanic membrane. The pressure equalization tubes will be pushed out of the tympanic membrane after a few months to a year of having them in place, but if they are placed correctly they are extremely effective, allowing the fluid to leave the middle ear space. If an adenoidectomy is to be performed as well, it will probably be during the same surgery. Adenoidectomy removes the adenoids if they are enlarged.
Removal may be beneficial because it is behind the adenoids that glue ear may reoccur after pressure equalization tube placement. Another option is microsuction, which involves inserting a needle through the tympanic membrane and using it to draw out the fluid. The upside to this procedure is that the fluid does not end up in the external auditory canal and have to be cleaned, which is especially helpful in children with Down syndrome with narrow canals.
In this paper we will look at a short description of what Down syndrome really is, the genetic causes of Translocated Down syndrome, symptoms, characteristics, medications, intervention programs and testing for Down syndrome while an infant is still in the womb.
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Down Syndrome can be diagnosed in infancy based on the characteristic medical findings. When Down Syndrome is assumed in a person, a genetic test called a “chromosome analysis” is performed on a blood or skin sample to look for an extra chromosome 21 (trisomy 21). DOWN SYNDROME Down Syndrome is a congenital disorder arising from a chromosome It comes from a defect involving chromosome The condition leads to impairments in both cognitive ability and physical growth that range from mild to moderate developmental disabilities.
Down Syndrome Essay Words | 5 Pages. Down Syndrome They used to be called "Mongoloids," an ethnic insult coined by John Langdon Down, an English physician during the nineteenth century. But now they are known as people, individuals with a condition known as Down syndrome. (3). Most children with Down syndrome exhibit a substantial delay in the appearance of first words, in spite of their normal babbling patterns. Taken together, the research by Buckley and B.L. Smith indicates that .