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The First and Second great awakening Essay

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❶Jonathan Edwards was a big name in the First Great Awakening, which began in the s.

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The new evangelical theory pressed individual free will and the theory that everyone is equal in the eyes of God and that God is the free, loving, saving grace for humans. The main source of information on the new theories came from inspirational bishops that traveled all over preaching about the new emotionally intense, passionate, musical, spiritually fulfilling interpretation of the Bible.

By depleting sinful practices such as drunkenness, idleness, Sabbath-breaking, prostitution, war and slavery, they would be making the world a more peaceful, Godly, moral place. The greatest leader of the religious movement was Charles Grandison Finney. Originally a lawyer who converted and became a Presbyterian minister, he became the most sought after preacher in America and his crusade directly affected the influx of religious families willing to adopt the new perfectionist sentiments.

The effects of this movement were especially significant because the majority of topics of moral and religious debate at the time also happened to be topics of current political controversy. Because of the political nature of these well argued, democratic, religious issues, the advancement of American political democracy in government came up often in debate.

Subsequent to the influx of new ideas, the new found American liberality, democratic appeal and other effects of the Romantic Era, the US began to form more accurately the framework of government we are familiar with today. Another point worth mentioning during this hectic time period is the effect of the Second Great Awakening on westward expansion.

Although there was a lot of liberal thinking, open mindedness and even more toleration of radicalism during this time, there was one fairly large, successful denomination that was not accepted by society. The way of the Mormons was considered blasphemous to the other evangelical Christian groups; The Book of Mormons aroused hostility and the practice of polygamy was unspeakable.

In when threats, lynchings and other attacks became reality they decided to move west, far away from their enemies. The travel was long and difficult and many died along the way. In short, more and more people called themselves Protestants, but they also began to distinguish themselves from other Protestants. The first stirrings of the Awakening occurred in the South and sparsely populated old Southwest, with its predominantly rural economy and poorly developed infrastructure and institutions, where religious organization served the critical function of providing social stability for the populace.

Here the two clearly dominant groups were the Methodists and Baptists, although other active sects included the Presbyterians, the Christians and the Disciples the last two formed by followers of Barton Stone and Alexander Campbell. The South did not produce, in Martin Marty's words, "first-rate theological minds" on the order of Jonathan Edwards, but in the decades after independence Evangelical Protestantism spread like wildfire through the region, with preachers fanning the flames at camp-meetings.

Precise numbers are difficult to ascertain, but Donald Mathews estimates that approximately 83 percent of Southern church members in were Evangelicals, and this percentage would climb in the decades to follow. The picture was much the same in the Midwest. Here, Protestantism achieved steady gains as evangelical methodology received greater definition under the influence of Charles Grandison Finney, who turned revivalism into a virtual science. In an lecture to his Presbyterian church in New York, entitled "What a Revival of Religion Is," Finney went further than anyone else had to date in setting out the precise methods and objectives of revivalist Evangelicalism.

First, he stressed the importance of emotion:. While emotionalism had long been the practice of revivalists, Finney was the first major religious figure to give the technique a calculated turn. His approach was revolutionary in that it abandoned the traditional notion that only God, through miracles, could induce the intense religious fervor that characterized a revival.

As Finney saw it, "[a]ll the laws of matter and mind remain in force" at a revival, which "consists entirely in the right exercise of the powers of nature" and is a "purely philosophical [scientific] result of the right use of the constituted means. In New England, these revivalist activities represented a challenge to the Anglican and Congregationalist establishments, which, gripped by a kind of siege mentality, sought to make their own churches more vital and competitive. They did so in large measure by loosening several of the major theological doctrines of Calvinism, principally that of predestination.

Together, these "New Light" Calvinists subverted the orthodox heritage of "hyper-Calvinism," and in so doing managed to save New England Calvinism from total obsolescence. Three principal architects of the new Calvinism were Yale President Timothy Dwight and two of his students, Congregationalist minister Lyman Beecher and the brilliant theologian Nathaniel Taylor.

In subtle ways, these men tried to revise Calvinism to appeal to a younger generation that had grown weary of the faith's rather grim doctrines. They incorporated a degree of proactive evangelism into their churches and began to organize reform societies in an effort to become more socially relevant. Theologically, their critical modifications involved free will, divine benevolence, and the preacher's role of moral suasion in bringing people to God.

Beecher, in an apparent affirmation of the evangelical method, declared in his sermon "The Faith Once Delivered to the Saints" that the original Christian sect spread because of revivalism:. Like Beecher, Taylor also stressed the power of preaching in his contributions to New Light Calvinism. He undercut the Calvinism of Jonathan Edwards and his modern descendants, the "neo-Edwardseans," in his efforts to reconcile Calvinism with Enlightenment ideas of free will.

The vast sea of human beings seemed to be agitated as if by a storm. I counted seven ministers, all preaching at one time, some on stumps, others on wagons Some of the people were singing, others praying, some crying for mercy. A peculiarly strange sensation came over me. My heart beat tumultuously, my knees trembled, my lips quivered, and I felt as though I must fall to the ground.

This young man was so moved that he went on to become a Methodist minister. As this quotation suggests, evangelical ministers reached their audience at an emotional level that powerfully moved large crowds. The evangelical impulse at the heart of the Second Great Awakening shared some of the egalitarian thrust of Revolutionary ideals.

Evangelical churches generally had a populist orientation that favored ordinary people over elites. For instance, individual piety was seen as more important for salvation than the formal university training required for ministers in traditional Christian churches. The immense success of the Second Great Awakening was also furthered by evangelical churches innovative organizational techniques.

These were well suited to the frontier conditions of newly settled territories. Most evangelical churches relied on itinerant preachers to reach large areas without an established minister and also included important places for lay people who took on major religious and administrative roles within evangelical congregations.

The Second Great Awakening marked a fundamental transition in American religious life. Many early American religious groups in the Calvinist tradition had emphasized the deep depravity of human beings and believed they could only be saved through the grace of God.

The new evangelical movement, however, placed greater emphasis on humans' ability to change their situation for the better. By stressing that individuals could assert their " free will " in choosing to be saved and by suggesting that salvation was open to all human beings, the Second Great Awakening embraced a more optimistic view of the human condition.

The repeated and varied revivals of these several decades helped make the United States a much more deeply Protestant nation than it had been before.

Finally, the Second Great Awakening also included greater public roles for white women and much higher African-American participation in Christianity than ever before. The Iroquois Tribes 2. The House of Burgesses 3. Witchcraft in Salem 4. The Ideas of Benjamin Franklin 5. Life in the Plantation South 6. A New African-American Culture 7. The Treaty of Paris and Its Impact 9. The Intolerable Acts The Declaration of Independence Yorktown and the Treaty of Paris When Does the Revolution End? Revolutionary Changes and Limitations: The Age of Atlantic Revolutions The Economic Crisis of the s

The Second Great Awakening and Rise of Evangelicalism

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Second Great Awakening Essay. Second Great Awakening. There was evidence of progress in the role of white middle class women, between and , due to the commercial economy and the religious revival brought on by the antebellum market revolution and Second Great Awakening. Free Essay: In the 's, 's, and beyond, There is a Second Great Awakening. The Second Great Awakening had a decided impact on American society. In the.

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Second Great Awakening In the late s and s a religious revival called the Second Great Awakening had a strong impact on the American religion and reform. Second Great Awakening This Essay Second Great Awakening and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on Autor: skylarmas • October 1, • Essay • Words (2 Pages) • /5(1).