Since white collar crime is intermingled with legitimate business activities and often involves complex and sophisticated technical actions, detection is very difficult. Technically speaking, when a corporation commits an offense, this is called "corporate crime" or "organizational crime," which is considered one type of white-collar crime.
This division of white collar crime categories into two types, occupational and corporate, was advanced by Clinard and Quinney in the s, and it remains influential to this day Green, Another aspect of white-collar crime that can be either individual or organized is governmental or political crime, for instance, lawmakers trading their influence and legislative votes for money and gifts. In addition to crimes deemed to be white collar in nature, RICO provides penalties for gambling, extortion, prostitution, narcotics trafficking, loan sharking and murder.
Punishment under RICO can be extremely harsh, including fines and up to 20 years in prison. Additionally, the defendant must forfeit any claims to the money or property obtained from the criminal enterprise or obtained from any criminal enterprise barred under RICO White-collar, Despite decades of corporate criminal offenses, it was not until that Congress enacted legislation that seriously penalized corporate wrongdoing.
Those convicted of committing securities fraud faced up to 25 years in prison. Also contained within the act was the directive that the Federal U. Sentencing Commission increase the penalties for other white-collar crimes. These new regulations have changed the historical landscape of both public and law enforcement attitudes towards white-collar crime.
In addition to traditional views on the causes of crime and deviance that focus on an individual's motivation or character, several other theories of crime deserve brief mention in relation to organized crime. Based upon Marxist views of capitalism, Taylor, Walton, and Young argued that oppressed groups, such as the working class, women, and minorities, may take action against the dominant, capitalist culture in order to counteract that culture's social, economic, and political power The dominant culture then labels these actions as criminal in order to maintain its power.
In other words, under critical criminology, what constitutes criminal behavior is contingent upon social and historical context, meaning that the definition of criminal behavior can vary over time in relation to the interests of the dominant group.
Critics of critical criminology argue that it romanticizes violent, disruptive, and harmful acts and that it has little interest in the realities of crime. Although "left realism criminology" developed out of the theoretical framework of critical criminology, it focuses upon realistic approaches to crime.
By studying crime victims, left realists focus on the marginalization or powerlessness of both the victims and the perpetrators of crime. Furthermore, relative to most members of society, these individuals are deprived of financial, social, and political resources.
Left realists, therefore, advocate crime interventions that create a more egalitarian relationship between the police and the public. One of left realism's contributions to criminology has been the expansion of the basic traditional triangle view of crime as involving an offender, a victim, and the state, by adding the public or a civil society to create the square of crime.
Conceptually, public attitudes and policies are brought into crime analysis in addition to law enforcement agencies. Its focus is less theoretical and more oriented towards the prevention and control of crime from a conservative "law and order" perspective. While many organized crimes have taken part in the United States, there have been cases related to other countries. Some offenders may come to the United States from another country to carry out their crime.
Most common organized offenses in the U. Organized crimes happen in metropolitan area and regions across the country often. Some crimes have decreased thanks to improved solutions by local and federal crime agencies.
They work to learn more about such crimes and train regularly on taking appropriate precautions on how to apprehend offenders connected to criminal activities. Studies continue to help us learn more about why organized crimes happen. There are criminals that think they will have a better chance of getting away with a crime committed when they work with others. Few criminals feel they need the additional manpower to commit a crime if they expect it to complete it without a hitch. Others just like the idea of being a leader and helping others commit crimes that will allow them to get what they want, no matter how wrong it may seem.
Some are motivated to commit organized crime due to religious beliefs, age, or just because they feel they are entitled to something the potential victim has. While thousands of people have been arrested and prosecuted for organized crimes, there is still a significant amount of work to do to reduce this activity in order to make society a better place.
Researchers study behaviors of those who commit crime to help understand motives and reasons behind their actions. This has also helped law enforcement officials plan their moves when taking action against dangerous criminals in hopes of a favorable outcome.
- Organized Crime Within the United States Organized crime is a widespread topic of concern among many Americans due to its popularity in the media and entertainment industry. The public is aware of its existence, yet is not fully aware of why and how this complex “underworld” exists.
Jun 01, · Free Essays from Bartleby | Social Organized Crime Perspective In some communities organized crime is as much of a social institution as other legitimate.
Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now! Organized crime in the USA like in the other countries is a matter of a big concern. Read this essay whenever you have to be ready on this topic.
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Organized crime groups have increased in dimension and activities in the last decade and have become global threats posing a serious challenge on the international community. Criminology term papers (paper ) on Organized Crime: Organized crime has always been occupied with a negative label. Perhaps this is due to the constantly changing environment in America as we. Term paper