The quintessence of ecology is to explain what we observe in nature; however, this does not mean that ecology can be understood only by observation, description and inference. The inherent complexities among the interacting organisms and environment also require some use of mathematics with a view to make some order out of the bewildering complexity and diversity.
Others who have defined it in a broader sense include, e. No wonder, therefore, that adequate solutions too many of the environmental problems have eluded us. In , Jordan posed the interesting question: This term was first proposed by the British ecologist A. Tansley in but, of course, the concept is by no means so recent. In terms of system theory, the ecosphere represents a super system. Ecosystems may be visualized as 3-dimensional cutouts from the ecosphere: The integrated unit may or may not be isolated but it must have definable limits within which there are integrated functions.
Unlike physiologists who study various functions in individual plants or animals, the ecologists study them at the ecosystem level. A real ecologist always tries to maintain a holistic or ecosystem perspective of the process being studied by him. Biocoenosis and bioecocoenosis are roughly equivalent to community and ecosystem respectively. Biotopes are the physical environments in which such communities exist.
According to Lamotte , it is this network of multiple interactions that permits us to define the ecosystem completely. Barrett proposed the new term noosystem to define a basic unit of study encompassing biological, physical, social, economic, and cultural influences on the total system.
Not only are the resources limited but there are limits both to the rates at which the environment can receive and recycle wastes and to its capacity for storing them in a suitable form. Complexity is a third characteristic of any ecosystem. It is because of such complexity that human intervention in or the meddling with a balanced ecosystem with the objective of producing some desirable effect, also often brings forth some additional, unexpected and undesirable side effect.
In certain countries, e. It is concerned with the ecology of an individual species and its population. On the basis of the kind of environment or habitat, ecology has been sub-divided into the following branches: Examples of major communities are: It is a smaller community which is not a self-sustaining unit.
It is dependent on other communities for its existence. Structure of a community can be studied by determining the density, frequency and abundance of species.
Usually a community has one or more species which occur in large number. Such species are called dominants and the community is often named after them. The community consists of different groups of plants and animals of different species, may be large and small, may belong to one life from or another but are essentially growing in a uniform environment.
This includes study of various life processes respiration, growth, reproduction etc. The recurrence of these important life processes at regular intervals in a year and their manifestation in nature is termed periodicity. Natural forest communities possess a number of layers or storeys or strata related to the height of plants, for example, tall trees, smaller trees, shrubs and herbaceous layers form the different strata. This phenomenon in a plant community is called stratification.
These are marginal zones and are easily recognisable. Usually, in ecotones, the variety of one species is larger than in any of the adjacent communities. A phenomenon of increased variety and intensity of plants at the common junction is called edge-effect and is essentially due to wider range of suitable environmental conditions. Different species of animals and plants fulfil different functions in the ecological complex.
The role of each is spoken of as its ecological niche i. We can also say that ecological niche is a small habitat within a habitat in which only a single species can survive. Communities are not static but progressively change with time in a definite manner. This change of the plant and animal communities in an orderly sequence in an area is called ecological or biotic succession.
Ecological succession finally leads to a stable nature community called climax community. The net production of biomass and storage of energy by a community per unit time and area is called community productivity. A biotic community has the ability to quickly regain equilibrium after a disturbance in population fluctuation. This is called biotic stability and is directly proportional to the number of interacting species it contains i. Before man encroached upon it, the world biosphere was a large climax community resulting from thousands of years of evolution.
With increase in population, the demand for space has been steadily increasing and so the ecosystem have been rapidly exploited beyond the capacity of the environment to adjust, thereby totally disrupting the balance of nature. Before a point of no return is reached, man should stop manipulating the environment to his advantage. Concern for environment protection was shown in the conference on Human environment held at Stockholm in June, The prime objective of the conference was to focus attention on the major environmental issues, to recognise and identify the causes for environmental degradation and the need to prevent and control it.
The conference called upon all the nations of the world to protect, improve, preserve and enhance the environment for the present and future generations. The patterns of behaviour organisms is regulated by natural selection even though it is detrimental for species. Ecology is a complex subject with huge variation in almost every scale.
For any observation there is often an immediate and delayed causes. These hierarchies need to be explained properly.
Read this essay to learn about Ecology! The term “Ecology” was coined by Earnst Haeckel in It is derived from the Greek words Oikos- home + logos- study. Ecology deals with the study of organisms in their natural home interacting with their surroundings. The surroundings or environment.
Maryland's Ecology and Environment - Maryland is the 42nd largest state, making it one of the smaller states in America. It is located in the South Atlantic region on the United States eastern seaboard.
Essay # 1. Introduction to Ecology. Every organism invariably depends upon the environment and other organism for its existence. It either eats other organisms or is eaten by others and competes with other for the necessities of life such as food, shelter and mate survival requires group association. Ecology is the study of interrelationship between living organisms and their environment. Life and environment are interdependent. The plant and animal life is effected by various environmental Related Articles: Short Essay for School Students on Our Ecosystem.
Essays Related to Ecology essay. 1. ".ecology enters religion as a central concept in two major ways. In a movement for the preservation of nature, that is, religious ecological preservation, and as a perspective and a method in the study of religion, or ecology of religion" In Christianity, the concept of a transcendent God has been used /5(10). Comprehensive Essay on “Ecology” Article shared by. Ecology is one of the most popular areas of biology. Even the layman and the general public are greatly interested in this subject in view of the problems of environmental pollution, human survival and conservation of natural resources.